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Amador‐Capitanachi, M.J., Moreno‐Sánchez, X.G., Ventura‐Domínguez, P.D., Juárez‐Ruiz, A., González‐Rodríguez, E., Gálvez, C., Norris, T. and Elorriaga‐Verplancken, F.R., Ecological implications of unprecedented warm water anomalies on interannual prey preferences and foraging areas of Guadalupe fur seals. Marine Mammal Science.

Elliser, C.R., Calambokidis, J., D’Alessandro, D.N., Duffield, D.A., Huggins, J.L., Rice, J., Szczepaniak, I. and Webber, M., 2020, September. Prey-Related Asphyxiation in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the US West Coast: Importance of American Shad (Alosa sapidissima) on Adult Female Harbor Porpoise Mortality. In Oceans (Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 94-113). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Dailey, R.E., Smith, K., Fontaine, C., Jia, Y. and Avery, J.P., 2020. Response of metabolic hormones and blood metabolites to realimentation in rehabilitated harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, pp.1-12

Williams, K.M., Fessler, M.K., Bloomfield, R.A., Sandke, W.D., Malekshahi, C.R., Keroack, C.D., Duignan, P.J., Torquato, S.D. and Williams, S.A., 2020. A novel quantitative real-time PCR diagnostic assay for fecal and nasal swab detection of an otariid lungworm, Parafilaroides decorus. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Miller, M.A., Duignan, P.J., Dodd, E., Batac, F., Staedler, M., Tomoleoni, J.A., Murray, M., Harris, H. and Gardiner, C., 2020. Emergence of a zoonotic pathogen in a coastal marine sentinel: Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepaticum)-associated hepatitis in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, p.335.

Scott, G., Field, C.L., Papich, M.G. and Harms, C.A., 2020. Plasma concentrations of itraconazole following a single oral dose in juvenile California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Van Bressem, M.F., Duignan, P.J., Raga, J.A., Van Waerebeek, K., Fraijia-Fernández, N., Plön, S. 2020. Cranial crassicaudiasis in two coastal dolphin species from South Africa is predominantly a disease of immature individuals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 139: 93–102,

Elliser, C.R., Hessing, S., MacIver, K. H., Webber, M. A., Keener, W., 2020. Harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena vomerina) catching and handling large fish on the U.S. West Coast. Aquatic Mammals, 46(2):191-199.

Orbach, D.N., Brennan, P.L.R., Hedrick, B.P., Keener, B., Webber, M.A., Mesnick, S.L., 2020. Asymmetric and Spiraled Genitalia Coevolve with Unique Lateralized Mating Behavior. Scientific Reports, 10:3257.

Soto, E., Abdelrazek, S.M., Basbas, C., Duignan, P.J., Rios, C. and Byrne, B.A., 2020. Environmental persistence and disinfectant susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from pinnipeds stranded on the California Coast. Veterinary Microbiology, 241, pp.108554.


Spraker, T.R., Kuzmina, T.A., Lyons, E.T., DeLong, R.L., Simeone, C. and Veeramachaneni, D.R., 2019. Multifocal Necrotizing Myopathy in Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga angustirostris) Pups, San Miguel Island, California. Veterinary pathology, 56 (1, January), pp.143-151.

Cameron, S., Lopez A., Glabman, R., Abrams, E., Johnson, S., Field, C., Gulland, F.M., Buckmaster, P.S. 2019. Proportional loss of parvlbumin-immunoreacitve synaptic boutons and granule cells from the hippocampus of sea lions with temporal lobe epilepsy. J. Comp Neurology Mar. 12 doi:10.1002/cne.24680

Hodesson, D.L., Force, J., Whoriskey, S., Field, C. 2019. Treatment of canine tooth fractures in the Northern Elephant seal: three cases. J Vet Dentistry 361(1):52-61.

Horning M, Andrews RD, Bishop AM, Boveng PL, Costa DP, Crocker DE, Haulena M, Hindell M, Hindle AG, Holser RR, Hooker SK, Hückstädt LA, Johnson S, Lea MA, McDonald BI, McMahon CR, Robinson PW, Sattler RL, Shuert CR, Steingass SM, Thompson D, Tuomi PA, Williams CL & Womble JN. Best practice recommendations for the use of external telemetry devices on pinnipeds. Animal Biotelemetry. 2019 Dec;7(1):1-7.

Lenting, B., Gartrell, B., Kokosinska, A., Duignan, P.J., Michael, S., Hunter, S., Roe, W.D. 2019. Causes of adult mortality in two populations of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). Animal and Veterinary Science 7: 10057 journal homepage:

Cunha, C.W., Slater, O.M, Macbeth, B., Duignan, P.J., Warren, A., Highland, M.A., Li, H. 2019. Domestic sheep and bighorn sheep carry distinct gammaherpesviruses belonging to the genus Macavirus. Virus Research 272

Chudeau, K.R., Johnson, S.P. and Caine, N.G., 2019. Enrichment reduces stereotypical behaviors and improves foraging development in rehabilitating Eastern Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, p.104830

Roe, W.D., Lenting, B., Kokosinska, A., Hunter, S., Duignan, P.J., Gartrell, B., Rogers, L., Collins, D.M., de Lisle, G.W., Gedye, K., and Price-Carter, M. 2019. Pathology and molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in native New Zealand seals, sea lions and dolphins. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212363.

Matt Marinkovich, D.V.M., Raymund F. Wack, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Dipl. E.C.Z.M. (Z.H.M.), Cara L. Field, D.V.M., Ph.D., Sophie T. Whoriskey, D.V.M., Philip H. Kass, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., M.S., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.P.M., and Jenessa Gjeltema, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M. Evaluation of Serial Blood Lactate and the Use of a Point-of-care Lactate Meter in Live-stranded Pinnipeds. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 50(1): 137–146, 2019.

Lauren B. Rust, The Marine Mammal Center, 2000 Bunker Road, Sausalito, California 94965, U.S.A.; Kerri Danil, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, NOAA, 8901 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla, California 92037, U.S.A.; SHARON R. MELIN, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, NOAA, 7600 Sand PointWay N.E., Building 4, Seattle,Washington 98115, U.S.A.; Brent Wilkerson, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, U.S.A. Accuracy and precision of age determination using growth layer groups for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with known ages. MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 000(000): 1–14 (2019)

Y. Bernaldo de Quirós, A. Fernandez, R. W. Baird, R. L. Brownell Jr., N. Aguilar de Soto, D. Allen, M. Arbelo, M. Arregui, A. Costidis, A. Fahlman, A. Frantzis, F. M. D. Gulland, M. Iñíguez, M. Johnson, A. Komnenou, H. Koopman, D. A. Pabst, W. D. Roe, E. Sierra, M. Tejedor and G. Schorr. Advances in research on the impacts of anti-submarine sonar on beaked whales. The Royal Society, 10 January 2019.

Julie D. Sheldon, Jorge A. Hernandez, Shawn P. Johnson, Cara Field, Sarrah Kaye and Nicole I. Stacy. Diagnostic Performance of Clinicopathological Analytes in Otostrongylus circumlitis-Infected Rehabilitating Juvenile Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 25 April 2019.

Mauricio Seguel, Kathleen M. Colegrove, Cara Field, Sophie Whoriskey, Tenaya Norris, and Pádraig Duignan. Polyphasic Rhabdomyositis in California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus): Pathology and Potential Causes Veterinary Pathology 1-11

Bossart, G.D. and Duignan, P.J. Emerging viruses in marine mammals. CAB Reviews 13(052): DOI: 10.1079/PAVSNNR2019 13052

Van de Velde, N., Demetrik, D.J., and Duignan, P.J. 2019. Primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma in a free-ranging River otter (Lontra canadensis)). Journal of Wildlife Diseases DOI: 10.7589/2018-07-181.

Rojas-Brach, L., Gulland, F.M.D., Smith, C.R., Taylor, B., Wells, R.S., Thomas, P.O., Bauer, B., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Teilmann, J., Dietz, R., Balle, J.D., Jensen, M.V., Sinding, M.H.S., Jaramillo-Legorreta, A., Abel, G., Read, A.J., Westgate, A.J., Colegrove, K., Gomez, F., Martz, K., Rebolledo, R., Ridgway, S., Rowles, T, van Elk, C.E., Boehm, J., Cardenas-Hinojosa, G., Constandse, R., Nieto-Garcia, E., Phillips, W., Sabio, D., Sanchez, R., Sweeney, J., Townsend, F., Vivanco, J., Vivanco, J.C., Walker, S. 2019. A field effort to capture critically endangered vaquitas Phocoena sinus for protection from entanglement in illegal gillnets. Endangered Species Research. 38 (2019): 11-27.


Whitaker, D.M, Reichley, S.R., Griffin, M.J., Prager, K., Richey, C.A., Kenelty, K.V., Stevens, B.N., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., Johnson, C.K., Duignan, P, Johnson, S., Rios, C., DeLong, R., Halaska, B., Rust, L., Byrne, B.A., Struve, C., Barnum, S., Soto, E. 2018. Hypermucus Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from stranded and wild-caught marine mammals of the US Pacific Coast: Prevalence, phenotype and genotype. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54 (4), 659-670.

Seguel, M., Nadler, S. Field, C, Duignan, P. 2018. Vasculitis and Thrombosis due to the Sea Lion Lungworm, Parafilaroides decorus, in a Guadalupe Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus philippii townsendi). Journal of Wildlife Disease 54(3):638-641.

Gulland, F.M.D., L. Dierauf, K. Whitman, (eds.) 2018. CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Third edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1063 pp.

Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T., Lonergan, M., and A. Hall. 2018. Harbor seal pup dispersal and individual morphology, hematology, and contaminant factors affecting survival. Marine Mammal Science XX: 1-23.

Peñín, I., Levin, M., Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Jasperse, L., Gebhard, Gulland, F.M.D., and S. De Guise. 2018. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) lymphocyte functions upon in vitro exposure. Environmental Research 167:708-717.

Lefebvre, K.A., Hendrix, A., Halaska, B., Duignan, P., Shum, S., Isoherranen, N., Marcinek, D.J. and Gulland, F.M., 2018. Domoic acid in California sea lion fetal fluids indicates continuous exposure to a neuroteratogen poses risks to mammals. Harmful Algae 79:53-57.

Neely, B.A., Prager, K.C., Bland, A.M., Fontaine, C., Gulland, F.M. and Janech, M.G., 2018. Proteomic analysis of urine from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): a resource for urinary biomarker discovery. J. Proteome Research bioRxiv, p.336867

Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Gulland, F.M.D., Bowen, L. 2018. MHC class II DRB diversity predicts antigen recognition and is associated with disease severity in California sea lions naturally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 57(2018): 158-165.

De Maio, L.M., Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F.M.D. 2018. The evaluation of olfaction in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and its relevance to domoic acid toxicosis. Aquatic Mammals. 44(3): 231-238.

Deming, A.C., Colegrove, K.M., Duignan, P.J., Hall, A.J., Wellehan, F.X., Gulland, F.M.D. 2018. Prevalence of urogenital carcinoma in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from 2005-2015. Journal of Wildlife Disease (Short Communications). 54(3).

Lian, M., Johnson, S, Gelatt, T., O’Hara, T., Beckman, K.B., Rea, L.D. 2018. Field anesthesia of juvenile Stellar sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) using inhalation anesthesia. Marine Mammal Science 34(1): 125-135.

McGrew, A.K., O’Hara, T.M., Stricker, C.A., Salman, M.D., Van Bonn, W., Gulland, F.M.D., Whiting, A., Ballweber, L.R. 2018. Ecotoxicoparisitology of the gastrointestinal tracts of pinnipeds: the effect of parasites on the potential bioavailability of total mercury (THg). Science of the Total Environment. 631-632(2018): 233-238.

Orr, A.J., Norris, T.A., Galvez, C., Deming, A.C., Elorriaga-Verplancken, F.R. 2018. First extralimital record of an Eastern Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) pup at Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals. 44(3): 279-284.

Van Bressem, M., Van Waerebeek, K., Duignan, P. J. 2018. Epidemiology of tattoo skin disease in captive common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Are males more vulnerable than females? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 2018. DOI:10.1080/10888705.2017.1421076

Volokhov, D.V., Amselle, M., Bodeis-Jones, S., Delmonte, P., Zhang, S., Davidson, M., Gulland, F.M., Chizhikov, V.E. 2018. Neisseria zalophi sp. nov., isolated from oral cavity of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Archives of Microbiology. DOI: 10.1007/s00203-018-1499-x


Baker, J.D., Hartling, A.L., Barbieri, M.M., Robinson, S.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Littnan, C.L. 2017. Modeling a morbillivirus outbreak in Hawaiian monk seals to aid in the design of mitigation programs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 53(4).

Barcenas de la Cruz, D. , 2017. Evidence of anthropogenic trauma in marine mammals stranded along the central California coast, 2003–2015 Marine Mammal Science DOI: 10.1111/mms.12457.

Buckle, K., Roe, W.D., Howe, L., Michael, S., Duignan, P.J., Burrows, E., Ha, H.J., Humphrey, S., McDonald, W. L. 2017. Brucellosis in endangered Hector’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori). Veterinary Pathology. 54(5): 838-845.

Buhnerkempe, M.G., Prager, K.C., Strelioff, C.C., Greig, D.J., Laake, J.L., Melin, S.R., DeLong, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Lloyd-Smith, J.O. 2017. Detecting signals of chronic shedding to explain pathogen persistence: Leptospira interrogans in California sea lions. Journal of Animal Ecology. 86: 460-472.

Cook, P.F., Berns, G.S., Colegrove, K., Johnson, S., Gulland, F. 2017. Post-mortem DTI reveals altered hippocampal connectivity in wild California sea lions. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Research in Systems Neuroscience. doi: 10.1002/cne.24317.

Cortes-Hinojosa, G., Gulland, F.M.D., Goldstein, T., Venn-Watson, S., Rivera, R., Archer, L.L., Waltzek, T.B., Gray, G.C., Wellehan Jr., J.F.X. 2017. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR for rapid and specific detection of California sea lion adenovirus 1 and prevalence in wild and managed populations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 29(2): 193-197

Gili, C., Biancani, B., Gulland, F., Mazzariol, S., 2017. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated dolphin mortality and the subsequent facility decolonization protocol. Veterinary Record Case Reports. 5:e000444.

Horning, M., Haulena, M., Tuomi, P.A., Mellish, J.E., Goertz, C.E., Woodie, K., Berngartt, R.K., Johnson, S., Shuert, C.R., Walker, K.A., Skinner, J.P., Boveng, P.L. 2017. Best practice recommendations for the use of fully implanted telemetry devices in pinnipeds. Animal Biotelemetry (2017) 5:13.

Kaye, S., Johnson, S., Rios, C., Fletcher, D.J. 2017. Plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy and Otostrongylus-affected Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Veterinary Clinical Pathology 43/4 (2017): 589-596.

Leathlobhair, M.N., Gulland, F.M.D., Murchison, E.P. 2017. No evidence for clonal transmission of urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Research One 2017 2:46.

Matkin, C. O, Moore, M. J., Gulland, F.M.D. 2017. Review of Recent Research on Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) to Detect Evidence of Poor Body Condition in the Population. Independent Science Panel Report to the SeaDoc Society. 3 pp. + Appendices. DOI 10.1575/1912/8803.

Meyer, M.S., Rickert, S.S., Pearce, H.L., Khan, O.A., van Bonn, W., Johnson, S.P., Lahvis, G.P. 2017. Social interactions of stranded and recovering immature California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Aquatic Animals. 43(5): 517-529.

Miller, M.A., Burgess, T.L., Dodd, E.M., Rhyan, J.C., Jang, S.S., Byrne, B.A., Gulland, F.M., Murray, M.J., Toy-Choutka, S., Conrad, P.A., Field, C.L., Sidor, I.F., Smith, W.A. 2017. Isolation and characterization of a novel marine brucella from a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis), California, USA. Journal of Wildlife Disease 53(2).

Norman, S.A, Flynn, K.R., Zerbini, A.N., Gulland, F M.D., Moore, M.J., Raverty, S., Rotstein, D.S., Mate, B.R., Hayslip, C., Gendron, D., Sears, R., Douglas, A. B., Calambokidis, J. 2017. Assessment of wound healing of tagged gray (Eschrichtius robustus) and blue (Balaenoptera musculus) whales in the eastern North Pacific using long-term series of photographs. Marine Mammal Science DOI: 10.1111/mms.12443.

Norris, T.A., Littnan, C.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Baker, J.D., Harvey, J.T. 2017. An integrated approach for assessing translocation as an effective conservation tool for Hawaiian monk seals. Endangered Species Research. 32: 103-115.

Ramey, A.M., Hill, N.J., Cline, T., Plancarte, M., De La Cruz, S., Casazza, M.L., Ackerman, J.T., Fleskes, J.P., Vickers, T.W., Reeves, A.W., Gulland, F., Fontaine, C., Prosser, D.J., Runstadler, J. A., Boyce, W.M. 2017. Surveillance for highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in California during 2014-2015 provides insights into viral evolutionary pathways and the spatiotemporal extent of viruses in the Pacific Americas Flyway. Emerging Microbes & Infections 2017(6): e80.

Seguel, M., Gottdenker, N.L., Colegrove, K., Johnson, S., Struve, C., Howerth, E.W. 2017. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumonia in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Pathologic findings in natural infections. Veterinary Pathology 54(5): 846-850.

Serrano, L., Simeone, C.A., Colegrove, K.M., Duignan, P.J., Goldstein, T., Gulland, F.M.D. 2017. Cetacean morbillivirus in odontocetes stranded along the central California coast, 2000-2015. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 53(2).

Sheldon, J.D., Johnson, S.P., Hernandez, J.A., Cray, C., Stacy, N.I. 2017. Acute-phase responses in healthy, malnourished, and otostongylus-infected juvenile Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 48(3): 767-775.

Siembieda, J.L., Hall, A.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Rowles, T., Garron, M., Matassa, K., Rotstein, D.S., Gonzalez, S., Northeast Region Marine Mammal Stranding Network, Johnson, C.K. 2017. Epidemiology of a phocine distemper virus outbreak along the North Atlantic Coast of the United States. Aquatic Animals. 43(3): 254-263.

Simeone, C.A., Traversi, J.P., Meegan, J.M., LeBert, Colitz, C.M.H., Jensen, E.D. 2017. Clinical management of Candida albicans keratomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates). Veterinary Opthamology. (2017): 1-7.

Speight, K.N., Whiteley, P.L., Woolford, L., Duignan, P.J., Bacci, B., Lathe, S., Boardman, W., Scheelings, T.F., Funnell, O., Underwood, G., Stevenson, M.A. 2017. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series. Australian Veterinary Journal. 95(7): 244-249.

Stacey, N.I., Field, C.L., Staggs, L., MacLean, R.A., Stacey, B.A., Keene, J., Cacela, D., Pelton, C., Cray, C., Kelley, M., Holmes, S., Innis, C.J. 2017. Clinicopathological findings in sea turtles assessed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. Endangered Species Research. 33: 25-37.

Stephens, N., Duignan, P., Symons, J., Holyoake, C., Bejder, L., Warren, K. 2017. Death by octopus (Macroctopus maorum): Laryngeal luxation and asphyxiation in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). Marine Mammal Science. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12420.

Whatmore, A.M., Dawson, C., Muchowski, J., Perrett, L.L., Stubberfield, E., Koylass, M., Foster, G., Davidson, N.J., Quance, C., Sidor, I.F., Field, C.L., St. Leger, J. 2017. Characterisation of North American Brucella isolates from marine mammals. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0184758.

Wilkin, S.M., Rowles, T. K., Stratton, E., Adimey, N., Field, C.L., Wissmann, S., Shigenaka, G., Fougeres, E., Mase, B., Southeast Region Stranding Network, Ziccardi, M. H. 2017. Marine mammal response operations during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Endangered Species Research. 33: 107-118.


Anderson, Clarissa R., Kudela, Raphael M., Kahru, Mati, Chao, Yi, Rosenfeld, Leslie K., Bahr, Frederick L., Anderson, David M., Norris, Tenaya A. 2016. Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system. Harmful Algae. 59(2016): 1-18.

Colegrove, K.M., Venn-Watson, S., Litz, J., Kinsel, M.L., Terio, K.A., Fougeres, E., Ewing, R., Pabst, D Ann, McLellan, W.A., Raverty, S., Saliki, J., Fire, S., Rappucci, G., Bowen-Stevens, S., Noble, L., Costidis, A., Barbieri, M., Field, C., Smith, S., Carmichael, R.H., Chevis, C., Hatchett, W., Shannon, D., Tumlin, M., Lovewell, G., McFee, W. , Rowles, T.K. 2016. Fetal distress and in utero pneumonia in perinatal dolphins during the Northern Gulf of Mexico unusual mortality event. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 119: 1-16

Cortes-Hinojosa, G., Gulland, F.M.D., DeLong, R., Gelatt, T., Archer, L., Wellehan Jr., J.F.X. 2016. A novel gammaherpesvirus in Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) is closely related to the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) carcinoma-associated otarine herpesvirus-1. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 52(1): 88-95. 

Cook, P. F., Reichmuth, C., Rouse, A., Dennison, S., Van Bonn, B., Gulland, F. 2016. Natural exposure to domoic acid causes behavioral perseveration in Wild Sea lions: Neural underpinnings and diagnostic application. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 57(2016): 95-105.

Dailey, R.E., Fontaine, C. M., Avery, J. P. 2016. Endocrine response to realimentation in young northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris): Indications for development of fasting adaptation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235(2016): 130-135.

Frankfurter, G., DeRango, E., Johnson, S. 2016. Use of acoustic transmitter-equipped remote sedation to aid in tracking and capture of entangled California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(3).

Fravel, V.A., Van Bonn, W., Gulland, F., Rios, C., Fahlman, A., Graham, J.L., Havel, P.J. (2016). "Intraperitoneal dextrose administration as an alternative emergency treatment for hypoglycemic yearling California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 47(1): 76-82.

Girard, Y.A., Johnson, C.K., Fritz, H.M., Shapiro, K., Packham, A.E., Melli, A. C., Carlson, Bremer, D., Gulland, F., Rejmanek, D., Conrad, P.A. 2016. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 5(2016): 5-16

Groner, M.L., Maynard, J., Breyta, R., Carnegie, R.B., Dobson, A., Friedman, C.S., Froelich, B., Garren, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Heron, S.F., Noble, R.T., Revie, C.W., Shields, J.D., Vanderstichel, R., Weil, E., Wyllie-Echeverria, S., Harvell, C.D. 2016. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B. 371: 20150364.

Gutierrez, J., Simeone, C., Gulland, F., Johnson, S. 2016. Development of retrobulbar and auriculopalpebral nerve blocks in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 47(1): 236-243.

Kaye, S., Johnson, S., Arnold, R.D., Nie, B., Davis, J.T., Gulland, F., Abou-Madi, N., Fletcher, D.J. 2016. Pharmacokinetic study of oral Ɛ-Aminocaproic acid in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 47(2): 438-446.

Krucik, D.D.R., Van Bonn, W., Johnson, S.P. 2016. Association between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) antigen results and presence of Acanthocheilonema odendhali microfilaria in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 47(1): 25-28.

Lefebvre, K.A., Quakenbush, L., Frame, E., Burek Huntington, K., Sheffield, G., Stimmelmayr, R., Bryan, A., Kendrick, P., Ziel, H., Goldstein, T., Snyder, J.A., Gelatt, T., Gulland, F., Dickerson, B., Gill, V. 2016. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment. Harmful Algae. 55(2016): 13-24.

McCabe, R.M., Hickey, B.M., Kudela, R. M., Lefebvre, K. A., Adams, N.G., Bill, B.D., Gulland, F.M.D., Thomson, R.E., Cochlan, W.P., Trainer, V.L. 2016. An unprecedented coastwidwide toxic algal bloom linked to anomalous ocean conditions. Geophysical Research Letters. 43. doi: 10.1002/2016GL070023.

Seguel, M., Halaska, B., Johnson, S., Gottdenker, N. 2016. Ectopic pregnancy in a California sea lion. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 9(3): 118-122

Simeone, C., Colitz, C.M.H., Colegrove, K.M., Field, C.L., Rios, C., Chandler, H.L., Johnson, S.P. 2016. Subconjunctival antimicrobial poloxamer gel for treatment of corneal ulceration in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Opthamology. 2016 1-9.


Boonstra, J.L., Barbosa, L., Van Bonn, W.G.Johnson, S.P., Gulland, F.M.D., Cox, S.K., Martin-Jimenez, T. 2015. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O-Desmethyltramadol following a single, orally administered dose in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(3): 476-481.

Barbosa, L., Johnson, S.P., Papich, M.G., Gulland, F. 2015.  Pharmacokinetics of a single-dose orally administered ciprofloxacin in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(2): 266-272.

Browning, H.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Hammond, J. A., Colegrove, K.M., Hall, A. J. 2015. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus califonianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B. 370: 20140228.

Carlson-Bremer, D., Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., Mazet, J.A.K., Johnson, C.K. 2015. Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Disease 51(2).

Carretta, J.V., Danil, K., Chivers, S.J., Weller, D.W., Janiger, D.S., Berman-Kowalewski, M., Hernandez, K.M., Harvey, J.T., Dunkin, R.C., Stoudt, S., Casper, D.R., Flannery, M., Wilkinson, K., Huggins, J., Lambourn, D.M. 2015. Recovery rates of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) carcasses estimated from stranding and survival rate data. Marine Mammal Science.

Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., Rouse, A.A., Libby, L.A., Dennison, S.E., Carmichael, O.T., Kruse-Elliott, K.T., Bloom, J., Singh, B., Fravel, V.A., Barbosa, L., Stuppino, J.J., Van Bonn, W.G., Gulland, F.M.D., Ranganath, C. 2015. Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings. Science. 350(6267): 1545-1547.

Fahsbender, E., Rosario, K., Cannon, J.P., Gulland, F., Dishaw, L.J., Mya Breibart. 2015. Development of a serological assay for the sea lion (Zalophus califonianus) anellovirus, ZcAV. Scientific Reports. 5: 9637

Greene, R., Van Bonn, W.G., Dennison, S.E., Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D. 2015. Laparoscopic gastropexy for correction of a hiatal hernia in a Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(2): 414-416.

Groner, M., Breyta, R., Dobson, A., Friedman, C. S., Froelich, B., Garren, M., Gulland, F., Maynard, J., Weil, E., & Harvell, D. 2015. Emergency response for marine diseases. Science, 347(6227): 1210.

Huckabone, S.E., Gulland, F.M.D., Johnson, S. M., Colegrove, K.M., Dodd, E. M., Pappagianis, D., Dunkin, R. C., Casper, D., Carlson, E.L., Skyes, J. E., Meyer, W., Miller, M. 2015. Coccidiomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central California, USA coast: 1998-2012. Journal of Wildlife Disease 51(2).

Molter, C.M., Barbosa, L., Johnson, S., Knych, H.K., Chinnadurai, S.K., Wack, R.F. 2015. Pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous dose of sustained release buprenorphine in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46(1): 52-61.

Neely, B.A., Ferrante, J.A., Chaves, J.M., Soper, J.L., Almeida, J.S., Arthur, J.M.., Gulland, F.M.D., Janech, M.G. 2015. Proteomic analysis of plasma from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) reveals apolipoprotein E as a candidate biomarker of chronic domoic acid toxicosis. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123295.

Neely, B. A., Soper, J. L., Gulland, F., Bell, P. D., Kindy, M., Arthur, J. M., & Janech, M. G. 2015. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis identifies proteins associated with neurodegeneration. Proteomics. 2015, 15, 4051–4063.

Nuckton, T. J., Simeone, C. A., Phelps, R. T. 2015. California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) Bites and Contact Abrasions in Open-Water Swimmers: A Series of 11 Cases. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 26(4): 497-508.

Parsons, E.C.M., Baulch, S., Bechshoft, T., Baellazzi, G., Bouchet, P., Cosentino, A.M., Goddard-Codding, C.A.J., Gulland, F., Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M., Hoyt, E., Livermore, S., MacLeod, C.D., Matrai, E., Munger, L., Ochiai, M., Peyman, A., Recalde-Salas, A., Regnery, R., Rojas-Bracho, L., Salgado-Kent, C.P., Slooten, E., Wang, J.Y., Wilson, S.C., Wright, A.J., Young, S., Zwamborn, E., Sutherland, W.J. 2015. Key research questions of global importance for cetacean conservation. Endanger Species Research. 27: 113-118.

Phan, T. G., Gulland, F., Simeone, C., Deng, X., Delwart, E. 2015. Seavirus: Prototype of a new parvovirus genus in feces of a sea lion. Virus Genes 50(1): 134-136.

Prager, K.C., Alt, D. P., Buhnerkempe, M.G., Greig, D.J., Galloway, R.L., Wu, Q., Gulland, F.M.D., Lloyd-Smith, J.O. 2015. Antibiotic efficacy in eliminating leptospiruria in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranding with leptospirosis. Aquatic Mammals 41(2): 203-212.

Randhawa, N., Gulland, F., Ylitalo, G. M., DeLong, R., & Mazet, J. A. (2015). Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease. One Health, 1: 37-43.

Simeone, C. A., Gulland, F.M.D, Norris, T., Rowles, T.2015. A systematic review of changes in marine mammal health in North America, 1972-2012: The need for a novel integrated approach. PloS ONE 10(11): e0142105

Van Hoomissen, S., Gulland, F.M.D., Greig, D.J., Castellini, J.M., O'Hara, T.M. 2015. Blood and hair mercury concentrations in the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) pup: Associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes. EcoHealth 12(3).


Cumeras, R., Cheung, W.H.K., Gulland, F., Goley, D., Davis, C.E. 2014. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: A case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals. Metabolites. 2014(4): 790-806.

Browning, H.M., Acevedo-Whitehouse K., Gulland, F.M.D., Hall,  A.J., Finlayson, J, Dagleish, M.P., Billington, K.J., Colegrove, K, Hammond J.A. 2014. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion. Proc. R. Soc. B 281: 20140240.

Buckmaster, P.S., Wen, X., Toyoda, I., Gulland, F.M.D., Van Bonn, W. 2014. Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Neurology. 522:1691-1706.

Delaney, M.A., Colegrove, K.M., Spraker, T.R., Zuerner, R.L., Galloway, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D. 2014. Isolation of Leptospira from a phocid: Acute renal failure and mortality from Leptospirosis in rehabilitated Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), California, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50(3); 621-627

Duignan, P.J., Van Bressem, M., Baker, J.D., Barbieri, M., Colegrove, K.M., De Guise, S., de Swart, R.L., Di Guardo, G., Dobson, A., Duprex, W. P., Early, G., Fauquier, D., Goldstein, T., Goodman, S.J., Grenfell, B., Groch, K.R., Gulland, F., Hall, A., Jensen, B.A., Lamy, K., Matassa, K.A., Mazzariol, S., Morris, S.E., Nielsen, O., Rotstein, D., Rowles, T.K., Saliki, J.T., Seibert, U., Waltzek, T., Wellehan, J.F.X. 2014. Phocine distemper virus: Current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 2014, 6: 5093-5134.

Fahlman, A., Loring, S. H., Johnson, S.P., Haulena, M., Trites, A.W., Fravel, V.A., Van Bonn, W.G. 2014. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs. Frontiers in Physiology. 5(433).

Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Smith, W.A., Conrad, W.A., Field, C.L., Fleetwood, M., Harvey, J.T., Ip, H.S., Jang, S., Packham, A., Wheeler, E., Hall, A.J. 2014. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 111:93-106.

Hansen, C.M., Hueffer, K., Gulland, F., Wells, R.S., Balmer, B.C., Castellini, J.M., O’Hara, T. 2014. Use of cellulose filter paper to quantify whole-blood  mercury in two marine mammals: validation study. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50(2); 271-278.

Kirkley, K.S., Madl, J.E., Duncan, C., Gulland, F.M., Tjalkens, R.B. 2014. Domoic acid-induced seizures in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are associated with neuroinflammatory brain injury. Aquatic Toxicology. 156(2014): 259-268.

Moore, S.E., Gulland, F.M.D. 2014. Linking marine mammal and ocean health in the ‘New Normal’ arctic. Ocean & Coastal Health. 102(2014): 55-57.

Ramsdell, J.S., Gulland, F.M. 2014. Domoic acid epileptic disease. Marine Drugs. 12:1185-1207.

Rust, L., Gulland, F., Frame, E., Lefebvre, K.  2014. Domoic acid in milk of free living California marine mammals indicates lactational exposure occurs. Marine Mammal Science. 30 (3): 1272-1278.

Simeone, A.C., Nollens, H.H., Meegan, J.M., Schmitt, T.L., Jensen, E.D., Papich, M.G., Smith, C.R. 2014. Pharmacokinetics of single dose oral meloxicam in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 45(3): 594-599

Stacy, N., de Wit. M., Boylan, S., Gulland, F., Frankovich, T. 2014. Diatoms in cytologic specimens of aquatic animals – Part II, dermal, respiratory, and gastric samples. Vet Clin Pathol. 2014.

Sterling, J. T., Springer, A. M., Iverson. S.J., Johnson, S.P., Pelland, N.A., Johnson, D.S., Lea, M., Bond, N.A. 2014. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female Norther fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). PloS ONE. 9(4): e93068.

Van Bressem, M., Duigan, P.J., Banyard, A., Barbieri, M., Colegrove, K.M., De Guise, S., Di Guardo, G., Dobson, A., Domingo, M., Fauquier, D., Fernandez, A., Goldstein, T., Grenfell, B., Groch, K.R., Gulland, F., Jensen, B.A., Jepson, P.D., Hall, A., Kuiken, T., Mazzariol, S., Morris, S.E., Nielsen, O., Raga, J. A., Rowles, T.K., Saliki, J., Sierra, E., Stephens, N., Stone, B., Tomo, I., Wang, J., Waltzek, T., Wellehan, J.F.X. 2014. Cetacean morbillivirus: Current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 2014(6): 5145-5181.

Wright, E.P., Waugh, L.F., Goldstein, T., Freeman, K.S., Kelly, T.R., Wheeler, E.A., Smith, B.R., Gulland, F.M.D. 2014. Evaluation of viruses and their association with ocular lesions in pinnipeds in rehabilitation. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2014: 1-12.


Barbieri, M.M., Raverty, S., Hanson, M.B., Venn-Watson, S., Ford, J.K.B, Gaydos, J.K. 2013. Spatial and temporal analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca) strandings in the North Pacific Ocean and the benefits of a coordinated stranding response protocol. Marine Mammal Science. 29(4): E448-E462  

Boyce, W.M., Mena. I. , Yochem, P.K., Gulland, F. MD, Garcia-Sastre, A., Moreno, N., Perez, D.R., Gonzalez-Reiche, A.S., Stewart, B.S. 2013. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in marine mammals in California. Emerging Microbes and Infections. 2013(2). doi:10.1038/emi.2013.40

Freeman, K.S., Thomasy, S.M., Stanley, S.D., Van Bonn, W., Gulland, F., Friedlaender, A.S., Maggs, D.J. 2013. Population pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in the tears and plasma of elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) following oral drug administration. JAVMA. 243(8): 1-9.

Goldstein, T., Mena, I., Anthony. S.J., Medina, R., Robinson, P.W., Greig, D.J., Costa, D. P., Lipkin, W.I., Garcia-Sastre, A., Boyce, W.M. 2013. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern elephant seals in 2010 off the central California coast. PLoS ONE. 8(5): e62259. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062259.

Gulland, F. 2013. Gray whale strandings, health evaluations and an unusual mortality event in 1999-2000. Journal of the American Cetacean Society. 42(1): 47-51.

Hansen, M.J., Bertelsen, M.F., Delaney, M.A., Fravel, V.A., Gulland, F., Bojesen, A.M. 2013. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49(3): 661-665.

Hughes, S.N., Greig, D.J., Miller, W.A., Bryne, B.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T., 2013. Dynamics of Vibrio with virulence genes detected in pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health.  Microbial Ecology. 65 (2)

Madl, J.E., Duncan, C.G., Stanhill, J.E., Tai, P.Y., Spraker, T.R., Gulland, F.M. 2013. Oxidative stress and redistribution of glutamine synthetase in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis. J. Comp. Path. (2013)

McHuron, E.A., Greig, D.J., Colegrove, K.M., Fleetwood, M., Spraker, T.R., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T., Lefebvre, K.A., Frame, E.R. 2013. Domoic acid exposure and associated clinical signs and histopathology in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Harmful Algae. 23 (2013): 28-33.

Meegan, J., Collard, W.T., Grover, G.S., Pussini, N., Van Bonn, W.G., Gulland, F.M.D. 2013. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofurcrystalline-free acid (exceed sterile suspension®) administered via intramuscular injection in wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 44(3): 714-720.

Moore, M.J., van der Hoop, J., Barco, S. G., Costidis, A. M., Gulland, F. M., Jepson, P.D., Moore, K. T., Raverty, S., McLellan, W. A. 2013. Criteria and case definitions for serious injury and death of pinnepeds and cetaceans caused by anthropogenic trauma. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Vol. 103: 229-264. 

Prager, K.C., Greig, D.J., Alt, D.P., Galloway, R.L., Hornsby, R.L., Palmer, L.J., Soper, J., Wu, Q., Zuerner, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Lloyd-Smith, J.O. 2013. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). 164 (2013): 177-183.

St. Aubin, D.J., Forney, K.A., Chivers, S.J., Scott, M.D., Danil, K., Romano, T.A., Wells, R.C., Gulland, F.M.D., 2013. Hematological, serum, and plasma chemical constituents in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuate) following chase, encirclement and tagging. Marine Mammal Science. 29(1): 14-35.

Southall, B.L., Rowles, T., Gulland, F., Baird, R.W., Jepson, P.D. 2013. Final report of the Independent Scientific Review Panel investigating potential contributing factors to a 2008 mass stranding of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) in Antsohihy, Madagascar.

Additional and supporting information can be found at:

Wells, R.S., Fauquier, D.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Townsend, F.I., DiGiovanni, Jr., R.A. 2013. Evaluating postintervention survival of free-ranging odontocete cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science. 29(4): E463-E483

Van Bonn, W., Dennison, S., Cook, P., Fahlman, A. 2013. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Frontiers in Physiology. 4 (5): 1-6.



Bargu, S., Goldstein, T., Roberts, K., Li, C., Gulland, F. 2012. Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, domoic acid, and related California sea lion strandings in Monterey Bay, California. Marine Mammal Science. 28(2): 237-253.

Bowen, L., Miles, A.K., Murray, M., Haulena, M., Tuttle, J., Van Bonn, W., Adams, L., Bodkin, J.L., Ballachey, B., Estes, J., Tinker, M.T., Keister, R., Stott, J.L. 2012. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health. Molecular Ecology Resources. 12: 67-74.

Carlson-Bremer, D.P., Gulland, F.M.D., Johnson, C.K., Colegrove, K.M., and Van Bonn, W.G. 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 240(3): 324-328.

Carlson-Bremer, D., Johnson, C.K., Miller, R.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., Wasmuth, J.D., Colegrove, K.M., Grigg, M.E. 2012. Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Parasitology 98(2): 347-354.

Gulland, F.M.D., Hall, A.J., Greig, D.J., Frame, E.R., Colegrove, K.M., Booth, R.K.N., Wasser, S.K., Scott-Moncrieff, J.C.R. 2012. Evaluation of circulating eosinophil count and adrenal gland function in California sea lions naturally exposed to domoic acid . JAVMA. 241(7): 943-949.

Hooker, S. K., Fahlman, A., Moore, M. J., Aquilar de Soto, N., Bernaldo di Quiros, Y., Brubakk, D., Costa, P., Costidis, A. M., Dennison, S., Falke, K. J., Fernandez, A., Ferrigno, M., Fitz-Clarke, J. R., Garner, M. M., Houser, D. S., Jepson, P. D., Ketten, D. R., Kvadsheim, P. H., Madsen, P. T., Pollock, N. W., Rotstein, D. S., Rowles, T. K., Simmons, S. E., Van Bonn, W., Weathersby, P. K., Weise, M. J., Williams, T. M. and Tyack, P. L. 2012. Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 1041-1050.

Lefebvre, K.A., Frame, E.R., Gulland, F., Hansen, J.D., Kendrick, P.S., Beyer, R.P., Bammler, T.K., Farin, F.M., Hiolski, E.M., Smith, D.R., Marcinek, D.J. 2012. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity. PLoS ONE. 7(5): e36213. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036213.

McLeland, S., Duncan, C., Spraker, T., Wheeler, E., Lockhart, S.R., Gulland, F. 2012. Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Disease. 48(4): 1030-1034.

Mancia, A., Ryan, J.C., Chapman, R.W., Wu, Q., Warr, G.W., Gulland, F.M.D., and Van Dolah, F.M. 2012. Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 36: 629-637.

Montie, E.W., Wheeler, E., Pussini, N., Battey, T.W.K., Van Bon, W., and Gulland, F. 2012. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals that brain atrophy is more severe in older California sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis. Harmful Algae,

Neely, B.A., Soper, J.S., Greig, D.J., Carlin, K.P., Favre, E.G., Gulland, F.M.D., Almeida, J.S., Janech, M.G. 2012. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Proteome Science. 10:18, doi:10.1186/1477-5956-10-18.

Sedlak, M.D. and Greig, D.J. 2012. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from an urban estuary. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 14:146-154. 

Stringer, E.M., Van Bonn, W., Chinnadurai, S.K., Gulland, F.M.D. 2012. Risk factors associated with perianesthetic mortality of stranded free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 43(2): 233-239.v

Venn-Watson, S., Benham, C., Gulland, F.M., Smith, C.R., St. Leger, J., Yochem, P., Nollens, H., Blas-Machado, U., Saliki, J., Colegrove, K., Wellehan Jr., J.F.X., Rivera, R. 2012. Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and stranding. Veterinary Research 2012, 43(85): 1-15.

Wilkin, S.M., Cordaro, J., Gulland, F.M.D., Wheeler, E., Dunkin, R., Sigler, T., Casper, D., Berman, M., Flannery, M., Fire, S., Wamg, Z., Colegrove, K., and Baker, J. 2012. An unusual mortality event of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) off central California: Increase in blunt trauma rather than epizootic. Aquatic Animals. 38 (3), 301-310.


Colegrove, K., Grigg, M.E., Carlson-Bremer, D., Miller, R.H., Gulland, F.M. Ferguson, D.J., Rejmanek, D., Barr, B.C., Nordhausen, R., Melli, A.C. and Conrad, P.A. 2011. Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus Californianus) with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity. Journal of Parasitology 97(5): 868-877.

Cook, P., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F. 2011. Rapid behavioural diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Biology Letters, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0127

Cranford, R.W., Elsberry, W.R., Van Bonn, W.G., Jeffress, J.A., Chaplin, M.S., Blackwood, D.J., Carder, D.A., Kamolnick, T., Todd, M.A. and Ridgway, S.H. 2011. Observation and analysis of sonar signal generation in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trucatus): evidence for two sonar sources. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407: 81-96.

Dennison, S.E., Boor, M., Fauquier, D., Van Bonn, W., Greig, D.J. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus patency in neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups in rehabilitation. Aquatic Mammals 37(2): 161-166. 

Dennison, S.E., Van Bonn, W., Boor, M., Adams, J., Pussini, N., Spraker, T. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Antemortem diagnosis of a ventricular septal defect in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94: 83-88.

Fravel, V., Van Bonn, W., Rios, C., and Gulland, F. 2011. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Veterinary Record 10.1136/vr.d4199.

Gobush, K.S., Baker, J. D. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Effectiveness of an antihelminthic treatment in improving the body condition and survival of Hawaiian monk seals. Endangered Species Research 15: 29-37. 

Goldstein, T., Colegrove, K.M., Hanson, M., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Isolation of a novel adenovirus from California sea lions Zalophus californianus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94: 243-248.

Greig, D.J., Ylitalo, G.M., Wheeler, E.A., Boyd, D., Gulland, F.M.D., Yanagida, G.K., Harvey, J.T., and Hall, A.J.H. 2011. Geography and stage of development affect persistent organic pollutants in stranded and wild-caught harbor seal pups from central California. Science of the Total Environment 409: 3537-3547.

Harris, H.S., Facemire, P., Greig, D.J., Colegrove, K.M., Ylitalo, G.M., Yanagida, G.K., Nutter, F.B., Fleetwood, M. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Congenital neuroglial heterotopia in a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) with evidence of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(1): 246-254.

Keogh, M.J., Spoon, T., Ridgeway, S.H., Jensen, E., Van Bonn, W. and Romano, T.A. 2011. Simultaneous measurement of phagocytosis and respiratory burst of leukocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) utilizing flow cytometry. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 144:468-475 

Li, L., Shan, T., Wang, C., Côté, C., Kolman, J., Onions, D., Gulland, F.M.D., and Delwart, E. 2011. The fecal viral flora of California sea lions. Journal of Virology 85(19):9909-9917. 

Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F., Rosen, D.A.S., and Finneran, J.J. 2011. Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady-state response methods. Journal of Experimental Biology 214(7):1138-1147. 

Norris, T.A., Littnan, C.L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Evaluation of the Captive Care and Post-Release Behavior and Survival of Seven Juvenile Female Hawaiian Monk Seals. Aquatic Mammals 37(3):342-353.

Ng, T.F.F., Wheeler, E., Greig, D., Waltzek, T.B., Gulland, F. and Breitbart, M. 2011. Metagenomic identification of a novel anellovirus in Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii) lung samples and its detection in samples from multiple years. Journal of General Virology 92(6):1318-1323.

Schofield, T.D., Levine, G., Gulland, F.M.D., Littnan, C.L. and Colitz, C.M.H. 2011. The First Successful Hand-Rearing of a Neonate Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) and Post-Release Management Challenges. Aquatic Mammals 37(3): 354-359.

St. Aubin, D.J., Forney, K.A., Chivers, S.J., Scott, M.D., Danil, K., Romano, T.A., Wells, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Hematological, serum, and plasma chemical constituents in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) following chase, encirclement, and tagging. Marine Mammal Science DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00536.x 

Van Bonn, W., Montie, E., Dennison, S., Pussini, N., Cook, P., Greig, D., Barakos, J., Colegrove, K, and Gulland, F. 2011. First evidence of gas bubble disease in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:89-96.

Volokhov, D.V., Norris, T., Rios, C., Davidson, M.K., Messick, J.B., Gulland, F.M. and Chizhikov, V.E. 2011. Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology 149 (1-2): 262-268.

Wellehan Jr., J.F.X., Rivera, R., Archer, L.L., Benham, C., Muller, J.K., Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., St Leger, J.A., Venn-Watson, S.K., and Nollens, H.H. 2011. Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: Expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11: 987-996.


Bargu, S., Silver, M., Goldstein, T., Roberts, K. and Gulland, F. 2010. Complexity of domoic acid-related sea lion strandings in Monterey Bay, California: foraging patterns, climate events, and toxic blooms. Marine Ecology Progress Series 418: 213-222.

Berman-Kowalewski, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Wilkin, S., Calambokidis, J., Mate, B., Cordaro, J., Rotstein, D., St Leger, J., Collins, P., Fahy, K., and Dover S. 2010. Association between blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) mortality and ship strikes along the California Coast. Aquatic Mammals 36(1):59-66.

Colegrove, K.M., Wellehan Jr, J.F.X., Rivera, R., Moore, P.F., Gulland, F.M.D., Lowenstine, L.J., Nordhausen, R.W. and Nollens, H.H. 2010. Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(4):628-32.

Dennison, S.E., Gulland, F.M.D., and Braselton, W.E. 2010. Standardized protocols for plasma clearance of iohexol are not appropriate for determination of glomerular filtration rates in anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 4:144-147.

Gill, S., Goldstein, T., Situ, D., Zabka, T.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Mueller, R.W. 2010. Cloning and characterization of glutamate receptors in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Drugs 8(5):1637-1649.

Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Rios, C.A. and Hall, A.J. 2010. Hematology and serum chemistry in stranded and wild-caught harbor seals in central California: reference intervals, predictors of survival, and parameters affecting blood variables. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46: 1172-1184. 

Hall, A.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Hammond, J.A., and Schwacke. 2010. "Epidemiology, disease, and health assessment". In Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation: A handbook of techniques. Eds. I.L. Boyd, W.D. Bowen, and S.J. Iverson. New York, Oxford University Press: 144-164.

Jacobsen, J.K., Massey, L., and Gulland, F. 2010. Fatal ingestion of floating marine debris by two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:765-767.

Jang, S., Wheeler, L., Carey, R.B., Jensen, B., Crandall, C.M., Schrader, K.N., Jessup, D., Colegrove, K., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Pleuritis and suppurative pneumonia associated with a hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology 141:174-177.

Lefebvre, K.A., Robertson, A., Frame, E.R., Colegrove, K.M., Nance, S., Baugh, K.A., Weidenhoft, H., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Clinical signs and histopathology associated with domoic acid poisoning in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and comparison of toxin detection methods. Harmful Algae. 9:374-383.

Levin, M., Joshi,D. Draghi A., Gulland, F. M., Jessup, D., and De Guise, S. 2010. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vivo exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46:541-550.

Lynn, B.L., Reichmuth, C., Schusterman, R.J., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Filial imprinting in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Aquatic Mammals. 36(1):79-83.

Melin, S.R., Orr, A.J., Harris, J.D., Laake, J.L., DeLong, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stoudt, S. 2010 Unprecedented mortality of California sea lion pups associated with anomalous oceanographic conditions along the central California coast in 2009. CalCOFI Reports. 51:182-194. 

Miller, M.A., Conrad, P.A., Harris, M., Hatfield, B., Langlois, G., Jessup, D.A., Magargal, S.L., Packham, A.E., Toy-Choutka, S., Melli, A.C., Murray, M.A., Gulland, F.M., and Grigg, M.E. 2010. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Veterinary Parasitology 172(3-4): 183-94. 

Moore, M., Walsh, M., Bailey, J., Brunson, D., Gulland, F., Landry, S., Mattila, D., Mayo, C., Slay, C., Smith, J., and Rowles, T. 2010. Sedation at sea of north Atlantic Right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) to enhance disentanglement. PloS ONE 5(3):e9597.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009597

Montie, E.W., Wheeler, E., Pussini, N., Battey, T.W.K., Barakos, J., Dennison, S., Colegrove, K. and Gulland, F. 2010. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91(3): 243-256. 

Nollens, H. H., Wellehan, J. F. X., Archer, L., Lowenstine, L. J., and Gulland, F. M. D. 2010. Detection of a respiratory coronavirus from tissues archived during a pneumonia epizootic in free-ranging Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina richardsii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 90: 113-120.

Richmond, J.P., Norris, T., and Zinn, S.A. 2010. Re-alimentation in harbor seal pups: Effects on the somatotropic axis and growth rate. General and Comparative Endocrinology 165:286-292

Rivera, R., Nollens, H.H., Venn-Watson, S., Gulland, F.M.D., Wellehan, J.F.X. Jr. 2010. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals. 2010 (91): 166-173.

Siebert, U., Gulland, F., Harder, T., Jauniaux, T., Seibel, H., Wohlsein, and Baugärtner, W. 2010. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina): clinical aspects. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 8:265-274.

Thomas, K., Harvey, J.T., Goldstein, T., and Gulland, F. 2010. Movement, dive behavior, and survival of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) posttreatment for domoic acid toxicosis. Marine Mammal Science. 26 (1):36-52.




Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Naydan, D.K., Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution. The Anatomical Record. 292: 1801-1817.

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M., Naydan, D.F., Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract. Anatomical Record. 292: 1818-1826. 

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Naydan, D.K., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. Tumor morphology and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, and Ki67 in urogenital carcinomas of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Pathology. 46: 642-655.

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Harr K., Naydan, D.K., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. Pathological features of amyloidosis in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology. 140: 105-112.

Dailey, M.D. 2009. A new species of Parafilaroides (Nematoda: filaroididae) in three species of fur seals (Carnivora: otariidae) from the southern hemisphere. The Journal of Parasitology. 95(1): 156-159.

Dau, B.K., Gilardi, K.V.K., Gulland, F.M., Higgins, A., Holcomb, J.B., St.Leger, J. and Ziccardi, M.H. 2009. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(2): 355-362.

Dennison, S.E., Forrest, L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Normal thoracic radiographic anatomy of immature California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and immature northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Aquatic Mammals. 35 (1): 36-42.

Fauquier, D.A., Kinsel, M.J., Dailey, M.D., Sutton, G.E., Stolen, M.K., Wells, R.S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Prevalence and pathology of lungworm infection in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from southwest Florida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 88: 85-90.

Goldstein, T., Zabka, T.S., DeLong, R.L., Wheeler, E.A., Ylitalo, G., Bargu, S., Silver, M., Leighfield, T., Van Dolah, F., Langlois, G., Sidor, I., Dunn, J.L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(1): 91-108.

Green, J.A., Haulena, M., Boyd, I.L., Calkins, D., Gulland, F. Woakes, A.J. & Butler, P.J. 2009. Trial implantation of heart rate data loggers in pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73: 115-121.

Montie, E.W., Pussini, N., Schneider, G.E., Battey, T.W.K., Dennison, S., Barakos, J. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Neuroanatomy and volumes of brain structures of a live California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) from magnetic resonance images. The Anatomical Record. 292:1523-1547.

Moore, E., Lyday, S., Roletto, J., Litle, K., Parrish, J.K., Nevins, H., Harvey, J., Mortenson, J., Greig, D., Piazza, M., Hermace, A., Lee, D., Adams, D., Allen, S., and  Kell, S. 2009. Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 2001-2005. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58: 1045-1051.

Ng, T. F. F., Suedmeyer, W.K., Wheeler, E., Gulland, F., and Breitbart, M. 2009. Novel anellovirus discovered from a mortality event of captive California sea lions. Journal of General Virology. 90:1256-1261.

Stoddard, R.A., Atwill, E.R., Conrad, P.A., Byrne, B.A., Jang, S., Lawrence, J., McCowan, B., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. The effects of rehabilitation of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) on antimicrobial resistance of commensal Escherichia coli. Veterinary Microbiology. 133: 264-271.

Torres de la Riva, G.,  Kreuder Johnson, C., Gulland, F.M.D., Langlois, G.W., Heyning, J.E., Rowles, T.K., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2009. Association of an unusual marine mammal mortality event with Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the southern California coastline. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(1): 109-121.

Wise, S.S., Shaffiey, F., LaCerte, C., Goertz, C.E.C., Dunn, J.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Aboueissa, A., Zheng, T. and J.P. Wise, Sr. 2009. Particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium are cytotoxic and genotoxic to Steller sea lion lung cells. Aquatic Toxicology. 91: 329-335.

Zabka, T. S., T. Goldstein, C. Cross, R. W. Mueller, C. Kreuder-Johnson, S. Gill, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Characterization of a degenerative cardiomyopathy associated with domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Pathology. 46: 105-119.

Zuerner, R.L, Cameron, C.E., Raverty, S., Robinson, J., Colegrove, K.M., Norman, S.A., Lambourn, D., Jefferies, S., Alt, D.P. and Gulland, F. 2009. Geographical dissemination of Leptospiria interrogans serovar Pomona during seasonal migration of California sea lions. Veterinary Microbiology. 137: 105-110.


Bejarano, A.C., Van Dolah, F.M., Gulland, F.M., Rowles, T.K., and Schwacke, L.H. 2008. Production and toxicity of the marine biotoxin domoic acid and its effects on wildlife: a review. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14: 544-567.

Bejarano, A.C., Gulland, F.M., Goldstein, T., St. Leger, J., Hunter, M., Schwacke, L.H.,  VanDolah, F.M., Rowles, T.K. 2008. Demographics and spatio-temporal signature of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) stranding records. Marine Mammal Science 24(4): 899-912.

Burek, K.A., Gulland, F.M.D., and O’Hara, T.M. 2008. Effects of climate change on arctic marine mammal health. Ecological Applications 18 (2) S126-134.

Cameron, C.E., Zuerner, R.L., Raverty, S., Colegrove, K.M., Norman, S.A., Lambourn, D.M., Jeffries, S.J., and Gulland, F.M. 2008. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira bacteria in pinniped populations via PCR and identification of a source of transmission for zoonotic leptospirosis in the marine environment. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 46(5): 1728-1733.

Dennison, S., Haulena, M., Williams, C., D., John, Yandell, B. S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 39(4):542-547.

Dennison, S. E., and Schwarz, T. 2008. Computed tomographic imaging of the normal immature California sea lion head (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 49(6): 557-563.

Fauquier, D.A., Mazet, J.A.K., Gulland, F.M.D., Spraker, T.R., and Christopher, M.M. 2008. Distribution of tissue enzymes in three species of pinnipeds. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(1): 1-5.

Goldstein, T., Mazet, J.A.K., Zabka, T.S., Langlois, G., Colegrove, K.M., Silver, M., Bargu Ates, S., Van Dolah, F., Leighfield, T., Conrad, P.A., Barakos, J., Williams, D.C., Dennison, S., Haulena, M.A, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275: 267-276.

Gulland, F.M.D., Nutter, F., Dixon, K., Calambokidis, J., Schorr, G., Barlow, J., Rowles, T., Wilkin, S., Spradlin, T., Gage, L., Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Moore, M., Smith, J., Folkens, P., Hanser, S.F., Jang, S., and Baker, C.S. 2008. Health assessment, antibiotic treatment, and behavioral responses to herding efforts of a cow-calf pair of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Sacramento River Delta, California. Aquatic Mammals 34(2): 182-192.

Hall, A.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Ylitalo, G.M., Greig, D.J., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2008. Changes in blubber contaminant concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) associated with weight loss and gain during rehabilitation. Environmental Science and Technology 42(11): 4181-4187.

Holmes, A.L., Wise, S.S., Goertz, C.E.C., Dunn, J.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Gelatt, T., Beckmen, K.B., Burek, K., Atkinson, S., Bozza, M, Taylor, R., Zheng, T., Zhang, Y., Aboueissa, A.-M., and Wise, J.P., Sr. 2008. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 1416-1421.

Horning, M., Haulena, M., Toumi, P. A., and Mellish, J.E. 2008. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids. BMC Veterinary Research. 4:51

Hunt, T.D., Ziccardi, M.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Yochem, P.K., Hird, D.W., Rowles, T., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2008. Health risks for marine mammal workers. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 81: 81-92.

MacLean, R.A., Imai, D., Dold, C., Haulena, M, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Persistent right aortic arch and cribiform plate aplasia in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(22): 499-504.

Nollens, H.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Jacobson, E.R., Hernandez, J.A., Klein, P.A., Walsh, M.T., and Condit, R.C. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of sea lion poxvirus to cidofovir. Antiviral Research 80: 77-80.

Nollens, H.H., Ruiz, C., Walsh, M.T., Gulland, F.M.D., Bossart, G., Jensen, E.D., McBain, J.F. and Wellehan, J.F.X. 2008. Cross-reactivity between Immunoglobin G antibodies of whales and dolphins correlates with evolutionary distance. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15(10): 1547-1554.

Norman, S.A., DiGiacomo, R.F., Gulland, F.M.D., Meschke, J.S., and Lowry, M.S. 2008. Risk factors for an outbreak of leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in California, 2004. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(4): 837-844.

Petrauskas, L., Atkinson, S., Gulland, F., Mellish, J., and Horning, M. 2008. Monitoring glucocorticoid response to rehabilitation and research procedures in California and Steller sea lions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 309A: 73-82.

Ramsdell, J.S. and Zabka, T.S. 2008. Review, In utero domoic acid toxicity: a fetal basis to adult disease in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Marine Drugs 6: 262-290.

Sarran, D., Greig, D.J., Rios, C.A., Zabka, T.S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Evaluation of aqueous humor as a surrogate for serum biochemistry in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Aquatic Mammals 34(2): 157-165.

Stoddard, R.A., Atwill, E.R., Gulland, F.M.D., Miller, M.A., Dabritz, H.A., Paradies, D.M., Worcester, K.R., Jang, S., Lawrence, J., Byrne, B.A., and Conrad, P.A. 2008. Risk factors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in California. Public Health Reports 123: 360-370.

Stoddard, R.A., DeLong, R.L., Byrne, B.A., Jang, S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella spp. among marine animals in the Channel Islands, California. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81: 5-11.

Yochem, P.K., Gulland, F., Stewart, B.S., Haulena, M., Mazet, J., and Boyce, W.M. 2008. Thyroid function testing in elephant seals in health and disease. General and Comparative Endocrinology 155(3): 635-640.


Aguirre, A.A., Keefe, T.J., Reif, J.S., Kashinsky, L., Yochem, P.K., Saliki, J.T., Stott, J.L., Goldstein, T., Dubey, J.P., Braun, R., and Antonelis, G. 2007. Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(2): 229-241.

Bejarano, A.C., Van Dolah, F.M., Gulland, F.M., and Schwacke, L. 2007. Exposure assessment of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lions: application of a bioenergetic model. Marine Ecology Progress Series 345: 293-304.

Buckles, E.L., Lowenstine, L.J., DeLong, R.L., Melin, S.R., Vittore, R.K., Wong, H.-N., Ross, G.L., St Leger, J.A., Greig, D.J., Duerr, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stott, J.L. 2007. Age-prevalence of otarine herpesvirus-1, a tumor-associated virus, and possibility of its sexual transmission in California sea lions. Veterinary Microbiology 120: 1-8.

Chivers, S.J., Hanson, B., Laake, J., Gearin, P., Muto, M.M., Calambokidis, J., Duffield, D., McGuire, T., Hodder, J., Greig, D., Wheeler, E., Harvey, J., Robertson, K.M., and Hancock, B. 2007. Additional genetic evidence for population structure of Phocoena phocoena off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. NMFS- SWFSC Administrative Report LJ-07-08: 16.

Dailey, M.D. 2007. A new species of Digenea (Trematoda: Brachycladiidae) from the Gervais’ beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus, with comments on other cetacean liver flukes. Comparative Parasitology 74(2): 229-232.

Dennison, S., Gulland, F., Haulena, M., De Morais, H., and Colegrove, K. 2007. Urate nephrolithiasis in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38(1): 114-120.

Greig, D.J., Mashburn, K.L., Rutishauser, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Williams, T.M., and Atkinson, S. 2007. Seasonal changes in circulating progesterone and estrogen concentrations in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Mammalogy 88(1): 67-72.

Greig, D.J., Ylitalo, G.M., Hall, A.J., Fauquier, D.A., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2007. Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(1): 37-44.

Gulland, F. M. D. and Hall, A. J. 2007. Is marine mammal health deteriorating? Trends in the global reporting of marine mammal disease. EcoHealth 4: 135-150.

Lloyd-Smith, J.O., Greig, D.J., Hietala, S., Ghneim, G.S., Palmer, L., St. Leger, J., Grenfell, B.T., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2007. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species? BioMed Central Infectious Disease 7: 125.

Moore, M., Early, G., Touhey, K., Barco, S., Gulland, F., and Wells, R. 2007. Rehabilitation and release of marine mammals in the United States: risks and benefits. Marine Mammal Science 23(4): 731-750.

Stoddard, R.A., Miller, W.G., Foley, J.E., Lawrence, J., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., and Byrne, B.A. 2007. Campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(6): 1729-1735.


Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Spraker, T.R., Lyons, E., Melin, S.R., Gulland, F., Delong R.L., and Amos, W. 2006. Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups. Molecular Ecology 15(7): 1973-1982.

Aldridge, B.M., Bowen, L., Smith, B.R., Antonelis, G.A., Gulland, F., and Stott, J.L. 2006.  Paucity of class 1 MHC gene heterogeneity between individuals in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal population. Immunogenetics 58(2-3): 203-215.

Brodie, E.C., Gulland, F.M. D., Greig, D.J., Hunter, M., Jaakola, J., St Leger, J., Leighfield, T.A., and Van Dolah, F.M. 2006. Domoic acid causes reproductive failure in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Mammal Science 22(3): 700-707.

Buckles, E.L., Lowenstine, L.J., Funke, C., Vittore, R.K., Wong, H-N., St Leger, J.A., Greig D.J., Duerr, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stott, J.L. 2006.  Otarine herpesvirus-1, not papillomavirus, is associated with endemic tumours in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 135(4): 183-189.

Buckles, E.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Aldridge, B.M., Gelatt, T.S., Ross, P.S., Haulena, M., and Lowenstein, L. J. 2006. Fetus in fetu in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi): histopathologic, genetic, and toxicologic analysis. Veterinary Pathology 43(4): 541-544.

Castinel, A., Duignan, P. J., Pomroy, W. E., Lyons, E. T., Nadler, S. A., Dailey, M. D., Wilkinson, I. S., and Chilvers, B. L. 2006. First report and characterization of adult Uncinaria spp. in New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups from the Auckland Islands, New Zealand. Parasitology Research 98(4): 304-309.

Cox, T.M., Ragen, T.J., Read, A.J., Vos, E., Baird, R.W., Balcomb, K., Barlow, J., Caldwell, J., Cranford, T., Crum, L., D'Amico, A., D'Spain, G., Fernandez, A., Finneran, J., Gentry, R., Gerth, W., Gulland, F., Hildebrand, J., Houser, D., Hullar, T., Jepson, P.D., Ketten, D., MacLeod, C.D., Miller, P., Moore, S., Mountain, D.C., Palka, D., Ponganis, P., Rommel, S., Rowles, T., Taylor, B., Tyack, P., Wartzok, D., Gisiner, R., Mead, J., and Benner, L. 2006. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3): 177-187.

El-Zein, R.A., Hastings-Smith, D.A., Ammenheuser, M.M., Treinen-Moslen, M., Gulland, F.M., and Ward, J.B. Jr. 2006. Evaluation of two different biomarkers for use in the assessment of toxic chemical exposure in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(1): 108-113.

Goldstein, T., Lowenstine, L. J., Lipscomb, T.P., Mazet, J.A.K., Novak, J., Stott, J.L., and Gulland, F.M.D.  Infection with a novel gammaherpesvirus in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(4): 830-835.

Goldstein, T., Gulland, F.M.D., Braun, R.C., Antonelis, G.A., Kashinsky, L., Rowles, T.K., Mazet, J.A.K., Dalton, L.M., Aldridge, B.M., and Stott, J.L. 2006. Molecular identification of a novel gamma herpesvirus in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Marine Mammal Science 22(2): 465-471.

Haulena, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Lawrence, J.A., Fauquier, D.A., Jang, S., Aldridge, B., Spraker, T., Thomas, L.C., Brown, D.R., Wendland, L., and Davidson, M.K. 2006. Lesions associated with a novel mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(1): 40-45.

Johnson, S., Lowenstine, L., Gulland, F., Jang, S., Imai, D., Almy, F., DeLong, R., and Gardner, I. 2006. Aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and investigation of associations with urogenital carcinoma. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 94-103.

Nollens, H.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Hernandez, J.A., Condit, R.C., Klein, P.A., Walsh, M.T. and Jacobson, E.R. 2006. Seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging California sea lions Zalophus californianus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 69: 153-161.

Nollens, H.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Jacobson, E.R., Hernandez, J.A., Klein, P.A., Walsh, M.T. and Condit, R.C. 2006. Parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions make up a distinct clade within the genus Parapoxvirus. Virology 349: 316-324.

Nollens, H.H., Jacobson, E.R., Gulland, F.M.D., Beusse, D.O., Bossart, G.D., Hernandez, J.A., Klein, P.A., and Condit, R.C. 2006. Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(1): 23-32.

Southall, B.L., Braun, R., Gulland, F.M.D., Heard, A.D., Baird, R.W., Wilkins, S.M., and Rowles, T.K. 2006. Hawaiian melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) mass stranding event of July 3-4, 2004. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-31. 72 pp.

Stapleton, H.M., Dodder, N.G., Kucklick, J.R., Reddy, C.M., Schantz, M.M., Becker, P.R., Gulland, F., Porter, B.J., and Wise, S.A. 2006. Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(5): 522-531.

Zabka, T.S., Haulena, M., Puschner, B., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2006. Acute lead toxicosis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) consequent to ingestion of a lead fishing sinker. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3): 651-657.

Zagzebski, K.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Lander, M.E., Greig, D.J., Gage, L., Hanson, M.B., Yochem, P.K., Stewart, B.S. 2006. Twenty-five years of rehabilitation of odontocetes stranded in central and northern California, 1977 to 2002. Aquatic Mammals 32(3): 334-345.


Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., DeLong, R., Melin, S., Buckles, E.L., Gulland, F., Lowenstine, L.J., Stott, J., and Johnson, M.L. 2005. An immunogenetic basis for the high prevalence of urogenital cancer in a free-ranging population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Immunogenetics 56: 846-848.

Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., DeLong, R., Melin, S., Godinez, C., Zavala, A., Gulland, F., Lowenstine, L., Stott, J.L., and Johnson, M.L. 2005. MHC gene configuration variation in geographically disparate populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Molecular Ecology 15(2): 529-533.

Burek, A., Gulland, F.M.D., Sheffield, G., Beckmen, K.B., Keyes, E., Spraker, T.R., Smith, A.W., Skilling, D.E., Evermann, J.F., Stott, J.L., Saliki, J.T., and Trites, A.W. 2005. Infectious disease and decline of steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska, USA: insight from serological data. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(3): 512-524.

Colegrove, K.M., Greig, D., and Gulland, F. M. D. 2005. Causes of live strandings of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) along the central California coast, 1992 – 2001. Aquatic Mammals 31(1): 1-10.

Colegrove, K.M., Lowenstine, L.J., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2005. Leptospirosis in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the California coast. Journal of Wildlife Disease 41(2): 426-430.

Conrad, P.A., Miller, M.A., Kreuder, C., James, E.R., Mazet, J., Dabritz, H., Jessup, D.A., Gulland, F., and Griggs, M.E. 2005. Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from a study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. International Journal for Parasitology 35: 1155-1168.

Dailey, M. D. 2005. Parasites of Marine Mammals. In Marine Parasitology. Ed. K. Rohde. Victoria, Australia, CSIRO Publishing: 408- 414.

Dailey, M., Ellin, R., and Paras, A. 2005. First report of parasites from pinnipeds in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, with a description of a new species of Philophthalmus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae). Journal of Parasitology 91(3): 614-617.

Debier, C., Ylitalo, G.M., Weise, M., Gulland, F., Costa, D.P., Le Boeuf, B.J., de Tillesse, T., and Larondelle, Y. 2005. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones. Environmental Pollution 134: 323-332.

Goldstein, T., Mazet, J.A.K., Lowenstine, L.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Rowles, T., King, D.P., Aldridge, B.M., and Stott, J.L. 2005. Tissue distribution of phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) in infected harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the central Californian coast and a comparison of diagnostic methods. Journal of Comparative Pathology 133: 175-183.

Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., and Kreuder, C. 2005. A decade of live California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) strandings along the central California coast: causes and trends, 1991-2000. Aquatic Mammals 31(1): 40-51.

Gulland, F. M. D. and Hall, A. J. 2005. The role of infectious disease in influencing status and trends. In Marine Mammal Research: Conservation beyond crisis. Eds. J. Reynolds, W. Perrin, R. Reeves, S. Montgomery and T. Ragen. Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press: 47-62.

Gulland, F.M.D., H. Pérez-Cortes M., Urgán, J., Rojas-Bracho, R.L., Ylitalo, G., Weir, J.,  Norman, S.A., Muto, M.M., Rugh, D.J., Kreuder, C., and Rowles, T. 2005. Eastern North Pacific gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) unusual mortality events, 1999-2000. U.S. Dept of Commerce, NOAA tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-150, 33 pp.

Kelly, T.R., Greig, D., Colegrove, K.M., Lowenstine, L.J., Dailey, M., Gulland, F.M.D., and Haulena, M. 2005. Metastrongyloid nematode (Otostrongylus circumlitus) infection in a stranded California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) – a new host-parasite association. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(3): 593-598.

Kim, K., Dobson, A.P and Gulland, F.M.D. 2005. Diseases and the conservation of marine biodiversity. In Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Eds E. A. Norse and L. B. Crowder, Island Press, Washington: 149-166.

Lander, M.E., Haulena, M., Gulland, F.M.D., and Harvey, J.T. 2005. Implantation of subcutaneous radio transmitters in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Marine Mammal Science 21(1): 154-161.

Matticci, S, Nascetti, G., Dailey, M., Webb, S., Barros, N., Cianchi, R. and Bullini, L. 2005. Evidence for a new species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845: morphological description and genetic relationships between congeners (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Systematic Parasitology 61: 157-171.

McKnight, C.A., Reynolds, T.L., Haulena, M., deLahunta, A., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2005. Congenital hemicerebral anomaly in a stranded Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(3): 654-658.

Nadler, S.A., D’Amelio, S., Dailey, M.D., Paggi, L., Siu, S., and Sakanari, J.A. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, and Contracaecum from northern Pacific marine mammals. Journal of Parasitology 91(6):1413-1429.

Neale, J.C.C., Gulland, F.M.D., Schmelzer, K.R., Harvey, J.T., Berg, E.A., Allen, S.G., Greig, D.J., Grigg, E.K., and Tjeerdema, R.S. 2005. Contaminant loads and hematological correlates in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) of San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 68: 617-633.

Neale, J.C.C., Schmelzer, K.R., Gulland, F.M.D., Berg, E.A., and Tjeerdema, R.S. 2005. Organohalogen levels in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups increase with duration of nursing. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 68: 687-691.

Nollens, H.H., Hernandez, J.A., Jacobson, E.R., Haulena, M. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2005. Risk factors associated with poxvirus lesions in hospitalized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227: 467-473.

Silvagni, P.A., Lowenstine, L.J., Spraker, T., Lipscomb, T. and Gulland, F. 2005. Pathology of domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Pathology 42(2): 184-191.

Stoddard, R.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Atwill, E.R., Lawrence, J., Jang, S. and P.A. Conrad. 2005.  Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California. Emerging Infectious Disease 11(12): 1967-1969.

Ylitalo, G.M., Stein, J.E., Hom, T.E., Johnson, L.J., Tilbury, K.L., Hall, A.J., Rowles, T., Greig, D., Lowenstine, L.J., and Gulland, F. 2005. The role of organochlorines in cancer-associated mortality in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 30-39.


Bowen L., Aldridge B.M., Gulland F., Van Bonn W., DeLong R., Melin S., Lowenstine L.J., Stott, J.L., and Johnson, M.L. 2004. Class II multiformity generated by variable MHC- DRB region configurations in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Immunogenetics. 56(1): 12-27.

Dailey, M.D., Kliks, M.M., and Demaree, R.S., 2004. Heterophyopsis hawaiiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus shauinslandi Matschie, 1905 (Carnivora: Phocidae). Comparative Parasitology71(1): 9-12.

Elson-Riggins, J.G., Riggins, S.A., Gulland, F.M.D., and Platzer, E.G. 2004. Immunoglobulin responses of northern elephant and Pacific harbor seals naturally infected with Otostrongylus circumlitus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(3): 466-475.

Fauquier, D., Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Dailey, M., Rietcheck, R.L., and Lipscomb, T.P. 2004. Meningoencephalitis in two stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) caused by aberrant trematode migration. Journal of Wildlife Disease 40(4): 816-819.

Goldstein, T., Mazet, J.A.K., Gulland, F.M.D., Rowles, T., Harvey, J.T., Allen, S.G., King, D.P., Aldridge, B.M., and Stott, J.L. 2004. The transmission of phocine herpesvirus-1 in rehabilitating and free-ranging Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in California. Veterinary Microbiology 103: 131-141.

Royal, L., Dailey, M.D., Demaree, R., and Sakanari, J. 2004. Acanthocephala cystacanth infections in sand crabs from Bodega Bay, California. California Fish and Game 90(1): 36-41.

Zabka, T.S., Buckles, E.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Naydan, D.K., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2004. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis in a stranded Steller (northern) sea lion (Eumatopias jubatus). Journal of Comparative Pathology130: 195-198.


Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., de la Cueva, H., Gulland, F.M.D., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Arellano-Carbajal, F., and Suarez-Guemes, F. 2003. Evidence of Leptospira interrogans infection in California sea lion pups from the Gulf of California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(1): 145-151.

Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Gulland, F., Greig, D., and Amos, W. 2003. Disease susceptibility in California sea lions: inbreeding influences the response of these animals to different pathogens in the wild. Nature 422: 35.

Burek, K.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Sheffield, G., Keyes, E., Spraker, T.R., Smith, A.W., Skilling, D.E., Evermann, J., Stott, J.L., and Trites, A.W. 2003. Disease agents in steller sea lions in Alaska: a review and analysis of serology data from 1975-2000. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(4): 26 p.

Desch, C.E., Dailey, M.D., and Tuomi, P. 2003. Description of a hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitic in the earless seal family Phocidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the harbor seal Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758. International Journal of Acarology 29(3): 231-235.

Duffield, D. A., Barros, N. B., Espinoza, E. O., Ploen, S., Gulland, F. M. D., and Heyning, J. 2003. Identifying pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (genus Kogia) using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of myoglobin and hemoglobin. Marine Mammal Science 19: 395-399.

Fauquier, D.A., Gulland, F., Haulena, M., and Spraker, T. 2003. Biliary adenocarcinoma in a stranded northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 723-726.

Goldstein, T., Gulland, F.M.D., Aldridge, B., Harvey, J.T., Rowles, T., Lambourn, D.M., Jeffries, S.J., Measures, L., Yochem, P.K., Steward, B.S., Small, R.J., King, D.P., Stott, J.L., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2003. Antibodies to phocine herpesvirus-1 are common in North American harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 487-494.

Hanni, K.D, Mazet, J.A.K, Gulland, F.M.D., Estes, J., Staedler, M., Murray, M., Miller, M., and Jessup, D.A. 2003. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(4): 837-850.

Johnson, S. P., Jang, S., Gulland, F. M. D., Miller, M., Casper, D., Lawrence, J., Herrera, J., 2003. Characterization and clinical manifestations of Arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central California coast. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39: 136-144.

Lander, M.E. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2003. Rehabilitation and post-release monitoring of steller sea lion pups raised in captivity. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4): 1047-1053.

Lander, M.E., Harvey, J.T., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2003. Hematology and serum chemistry comparisons between free-ranging and rehabilitated harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) pups. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 600-609.

Lapointe, J.M., Duignan, P.J., Barr, B.C., Petrich, A.K., MacPherson, D.W., Gulland, F.M., and Dubey, J.P. 2003. Meningoencephalitis associated with an unidentified apicomplexan protozoan in a Pacific harbor seal. Journal of Parasitology 89(4): 859-862.

Mayer, K., Dailey, M.D., and Miller, M. 2003. Helminth parasites of the southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis in central California: abundance, distribution and pathology. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 53: 77-88.

Van Dolah, F.M., Douchette, G.J., Gulland, F., Rowles, T, and Bossart, G. 2003. Impacts of algal toxins on marine mammals. In: Vos, J.G., Bossart, G.D., Fournier, M. and O'Shea, T. (eds.), Toxicology of Marine Mammals, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 247-270


Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Woo, J., Van Bonn, W., DeLong, R., Stott, J.L., and Johnson, M.L. 2002. Molecular characterization of expressed DQA and DQB genes in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Immunogenetics 54: 332-347.

Colagross-Schouten, A.M., Mazet, J.A.K., Gulland, F.M.D., Miller, M.A. and Hietala, S. 2002. Diagnosis and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions from coastal California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38: 7-17.

Dailey, M.D., Demaree, R.S., and Critchfield, R.L. 2002. Galactosomum stelleri sp. n. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Northern sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)(Carnivora: Otariidae). Comparative Parasitology 69(1): 58-61.

Dailey, M.D., Haulena, M., and Lawrence, J.L. 2002. First report of a parasitic copepod (Pennella balaenopterae) infestation in a pinniped. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33(1): 62-65.

Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Fauquier, D., Langlois, G., Lander, M.E., Zabka, T., and Duerr, R. 2002. Domoic acid toxicity in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus): clinical signs, treatment and survival. Veterinary Record 150: 475-480. 

Haulena, M., Buckles, E., Gulland, F.M.D., Lawrence, J.A., Wong, A., Jang, S., Christopher, M.M., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2002. Systemic mycosis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a stranded Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33(2): 166-171. 

King, D.P., Hure, M.C., Goldstein, T., Aldridge, B.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Saliki, J.T., Buckles, E.L., Lowenstine, L.J., and Stott, J.L. 2002. Otariine herpesvirus-1: a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology2277: 131-137.

Lander, M.E., Harvey, J.T., Hanni, K.D., and Morgan, L.E. 2002. Behavior, movements, and apparent survival of rehabilitated and free-ranging harbor seal pups. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(1): 19-28.

Larson, S.R., Haulena, M., Grindem, C.B., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2002. Blood values of juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) obtained using a portable clinical analyzer. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 31(2): 106-110.


 Dailey, M.D. 2001. Parasitic Diseases. In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 357-379.

Dierauf, L.A. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2001. CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second edition.  Boca Raton, CRC Press: 1063.

Elson-Riggins, J.G., Al-Banna, L., Platzer, E.G., and Kaloshian, I. 2001. Characterization of Otostrongylus circumlitus from Pacific harbor and northern elephant seals.Journal of Parasitology 87(1): 73-78

Gulland, F.M.D., Dierauf, L.A., and Rowles, T.K. 2001. Marine Mammal Stranding Networks. In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 45-68.

Gulland, F.M.D., Lowenstine, L., and Spraker, T. 2001. Noninfectious Diseases. In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 521-550.

Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., and Dierauf, L. 2001. Seals and Sea Lions. In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 907-926.

Haulena, M. and Heath, R. B. 2001. Marine Mammal Anesthesia, In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 655-688.

Haulena, M. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2001. Use of medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with and without atipamezole reversal to immobilize captive California sea lions. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37(3): 566-573.

Kajiwara, N., Kannan, K., Muraoka, M., Watanabe, M., Takahashi, S., Gulland, F., Olsen, H., Blankenship, A.L., Jones, P.D., Tanabe, S., and Giesy, J. P. 2001. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded California sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal California, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41: 90-99.

King, D.P., Lie, A.R., Goldstein, T., Aldridge, B.M., Gulland, F.M., Haulena, M., Adkison, M.A., Lowenstine, L.J., and Stott, J.L. 2001. Humoral immune responses to phocine herpesvirus-1 in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) during an outbreak of clinical disease. Veterinary Microbiology 80(1): 1-8.

Lander, M.E., Westgate, A.J., Bonde, R.K., and Murray, M.J. 2001. Tagging and Tracking. In CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, Second Edition. Eds. L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland. Boca Raton, CRC Press: 851-880.

Lyons, E. T., Melin, S. R., DeLong, R. L., Orr, A. J., Gulland, F. M., and Tolliver, S. C. 2001. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms. Veterinary Parasitology 97: 309-318.

Miller, M.A., Sverlow, K., Crosbie, P.R., Barr, B. C., Lowenstine, L.J., Gulland, F.M., Packham, A., and Conrad, P.A. 2001. Isolation and characterization of two parasitic protozoa form a pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) with meningoencephalomyelitis. Journal of Parasitology 87(4): 816-822.

Moore, S.E., Urban R.J., Perryman, W.L., Gulland, F., Perez-Cortes M.H., Wade, P.R., Rojas-Bracho, L., and Rowles, T. 2001. Are gray whales hitting “k” hard? Marine Mammal Science 17(4): 954-958.


Dailey, M.D., Gulland, F.M.D., Lowenstine, L.J., Silvagni, P. and Howard, D. 2000.  Prey, parasites and pathology associated with the mortality of a juvenile gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded along the northern California coast. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42: 111-117.

Gulland, F. 2000. Domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded along the central California coast, May-October 1998. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-OPR, 17, 45 pp.

Gulland, F.M., Stoskopf, M.K., Johnson, S.P., Riviere, J., and Papich, M.G. 2000. Amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) following single dose intravenous administration: implications for interspecific dose scaling. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23: 223-228.

Haulena, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Calkins, D.G. and Spraker, T.R. 2000. Immobilization of California sea lions using medetomidine plus ketamine with and without isoflurane and reversal with atipamezole. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36: 124-130. 

Lander, M.E., Gulland, F.M.D., and DeLong, R.L. 2000. Satellite tracking a rehabilitated Guadelupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendii). Aquatic Mammals 26: 137-142.

Lipscomb, T.P., Scott, D.P., Garber, R.L., Krafft, A.E., Tsai, M.M., Lichy, J.H., Taubenberger, J.K., Schulman, F.Y., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2000. Common metastatic carcinoma of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): evidence of genital origin and association with novel gammaherpesvirus. Veterinary Pathology 37: 609-617.

Lyons, E.T., DeLong, R.L., Gulland, F.M., Melin, S.R., Tolliver, S.C., and Spraker, T. 2000. Comparative biology of Uncinaria spp. in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) in California. Journal of Parasitology 86: 1348-1352.

Scholin, C.A., Gulland, F., Doucette, G.J., Benson, S., Busman, M., Chavez, F.P., Cordaro, J., DeLong, R., De Vogelaere, A., Harvey, J., Haulena, M., Lefebvre, K., Lipscomb, T., Loscutoff, S., Lowenstine, L.J., Marin, R., III, Miller, P.E., McLellan, W.A., Moeller, P.D.R., Powell, C.L., Rowles, T., Silvagni, P., Silver, M., Spraker, T., Trainer, V., and Van Dolah, F.M. 2000. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature 403: 80-84.

Wilkinson, I., Childerhouse, S., Duignan, D., Gulland, F. 2000. Infanticide and cannibalism in the New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri.Marine Mammal Science 16(2): 494-500.


Goldstein, T., Johnson, S.P., Phillips, A.V., Hanni, K., Fauquier, D.A., and Gulland, F.M.D. 1999. Human-related injuries observed in live stranded pinnipeds along the central California coast 1986-1998. Aquatic Mammals 25(1): 43-51.  

Gulland, F.M.D. 1999. Leptospirosis in marine mammals. In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy 4. Eds. M.E. Fowler and R.E. Miller. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company: 469-471.

Gulland, F.M.D. 1999.  Health assessment in stranded and rehabilitated pinnipeds. In Environmental contaminants and marine mammal health: research applications. Eds. P. S. Ross and S. DeGuise.Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2255: 16. 

Gulland, F.M.D. 1999.  Stranded seals: Important sentinels. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(8): 1191-1192. 

Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Elliott, S., Thornton, S., and Gage, L. 1999. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific harbor seals using propofol alone and in combination with isoflurane. Marine Mammal Science 15(1): 234-238.

Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Lowenstine, L.J., Munro, C., Graham, P.A., Bauman, J., and Harvey, J. 1999. Adrenal function in wild and rehabilitated Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) and in seals with phocine herpesvirus-associated adrenal necrosis. Marine Mammal Science 15(3): 810-827.

Ham-Lammé, K.D., King, D.P., Taylor, B.C., House, C., Jessup, D.A., Jeffries, S., Yochem, P., Gulland, F.M.D., Ferrick, D.A. and Stott, J.L. 1999. The application of immuno-assays for serological detection of morbillivirus exposure in free ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from the western coast of the United States. Marine Mammal Science 15(2): 601-608.  

Lapointe, J.M., Gulland, F.M., Haines, D.M., Barr, B.C., and Duignan, P.J. 1999.  Placentitis due to Coxiella burnetii in Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi).  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 11: 541-543.

Ostland, V.E., Byrne, P.J., Lumsden, J.S., MacPhee, D.D., Derksen, J.A., Haulena, M., Skar, K., Myhr, E. and Ferguson, H.W. 1999. Atypical bacterial gill disease: a new form of bacterial gill disease affecting intensively reared salmonids. Journal of Fish Diseases 22: 351-358.

Stevens, E., Lipscomb, T.P. and Gulland, F.M.D. 1999. An additional case of leptospirosis in a harbor seal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35(1): 150.  


Goldstein, T., Johnson, S.P., Werner, L.J., Nolan, S., and Hilliard, B.A. 1998. Causes of erroneous white blood cell counts and differentials in clinically healthy young northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(4): 408-412.  

Haulena, M., St. Aubin, D.J., and Duignan, P.J. 1998.  Thyroid hormone dynamics during the nursing period in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(1): 48-55.  

Johnson, S.P., Nolan, S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pinnipeds stranded in central and northern California. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(3): 288-294.  

King, D.P., Parselles, R., Gulland, F.M.D., Lapointe, J.-M., Lowenstine, L.J., Ferrick, D.A., and Stott, J.L. 1998. Antigenic and nucleotide characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Archives of Virology 143: 2021-2027.  

King, D.P., Sanders, J.L., Nomura, C.T., Stoddard, R.A., Ortiz, C.L., and Evans, S.W. 1998.  Ontogeny of humoral immunity in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) neonates.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B 121: 363-368.

Lapointe, J.M., Duignan, P.J., Marsh, A.E., Gulland, F.M., Barr, B.C., Naydan, D.K., King, D.P., Farman, C.A., Burek Huntingon, K.A., and Lowenstine, L.J. 1998. Meningoencephalitis due to a Sarcocystis neurona-like protozoan in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Journal of Parasitology 84(6): 1184-1189.

Reidarson, T.H., McBain, J., House, C., King, D.P., Stott, J.L., Krafft, A., Taubenberger, J.K., Heyning, J., and Lipscomb, T.P. 1998. Morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34(4): 771-776.  

Stamper, M.A., Gulland, F.M.D., and Spraker, T. 1998. Leptospirosis in rehabilitated Pacific harbor seals from California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34(2): 407-410.  

Thornton, S.M., Nolan, S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 1998. Bacterial isolates from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central California coast, 1994-1995. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(2): 171-176.  


Beckmen, K.B., Lowenstine, L.J., Newman, J., Hill, J., Hanni, K. and Gerber, J. 1997. Clinical and pathological characterization of northern elephant seal skin disease. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(3): 438-449.  

Funke, C., King, D.P., Brotheridge, R.M., Adelung, D., and Stott, J.L. 1997. Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) C-reactive protein (C-RP): purification, characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies and development of an immunoassay to measure serum C-RP concentrations. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 59: 151-162.  

Gulland, F.M.D. 1997. The impact of parasites on wild animals populations.  Parassitolgia 39: 287-291.    

Gulland, F.M.D., Lowenstine, L.J., Lapointe, J.M., Spraker, T., and King, D.P. 1997.  Herpesvirus infection in stranded Pacific harbor seals of coastal California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(3): 450-458.  

Gulland, F.M.D., Beckmen, K., Burek, K., Lowenstine, L., Werner, L., Spraker, T. and Harris, E. 1997. Otostrongylus circumlitus infestation of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) stranded in central California. Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 446-459.  

Hanni, K.D., Long, D.J., and Morgan, L.E. 1997. Sightings and strandings of Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) in central and northern CaliforniaJournal of Mammalogy 78(2): 684-690.  

Trupkiewicz, J.G., Gulland, F.M.D., and Lowenstine, L.J. 1997. Congenital defects in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the central California coast 1988-1995.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(2): 220-225.    


Fauquier, D.A., Gulland, F. M .D., Trupkiewicz, J.G., Spraker, T.R. and Lowenstine, L.J. 1996. Coccidioidomycosis in free-living California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in central California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(4): 707-710. 

Feldman, H.N. and Parrot, K.M. 1996.Grooming in a captive Guadalupe fur seal. Marine Mammal Science 12(1): 147-153. 

Gulland, F.M.D., Koski, M., Lowenstine, L.J., Colagrass, A., Morgan, L. and Spraker, T. 1996. Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded along the central California coast, 1981-1994. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(4): 572-580.   

Gulland, F.M.D., Trupkiewicz, J.G., Spraker, T.R. and Lowenstine, L.J. 1996. Metastatic carcinoma of probable transitional cell origin in 66 free-living California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 1979-1994. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(2): 250-258. 

Gulland, F.M.D., Werner, L., O’Neill, S., Lowenstine, L., Trupkiewicz, J., Smith, D., Royal, B. and Strubel, I. 1996. Baseline coagulation assay values for northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and disseminated intravascular coagulation in this species. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(3): 536-540. 

King, D.P., Schrenzel, M.D., McKnight, M.L., Reidarson, T.H., Hanni, K., Stott, J.L. and Ferrick, D.A. 1996. Molecular cloning and sequencing of an Interleukin 6 cDNA fragment of the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and killer whale (Orcinus orca). Immunogenetics 43: 190-195. 

Long, D.J., Hanni, K.D., Pyle, P., Roletto, J., Jones, R.E., and Bandar, R. 1996. White shark predation on four pinniped species in central California waters: geographic and temporal patterns inferred from wounded carcasses. In Great White Sharks, The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Eds. A. P. Klimley and D. G. Ainley.  San Diego, Academic Press.

Morgan, L.E., Hanni, K., and Lowenstine, L. 1996. Age and pathological findings in two steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus, stranded on the northern California coast. California Fish and Game 82: 81-86.  

Pre- 1996

Grenfell, B.T. and Gulland, F.M.D. 1995. Introduction: Ecological impact of parasitism on wildlife host populations. Parasitiology 111: S3-S14.   

Gulland, F.M.D. 1995. The impact of infectious diseases on wild animal populations - a review.  In Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Eds. B.T. Grenfell and A.P. Dobson. Cambridge University Press, 20-51. 

Harms, C., Gage, L.J., Smith, D.M. and Beckmen, K.B. 1994. Clinical challenge: regurgitation in three harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi.Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 25(2): 301-303. 

Hastings, B.E., Lowenstine, L.J., Gage, L.J., and Munn, R.J. 1989. An epizootic of seal pox in pinnipeds at a rehabilitation center. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20(3): 282-290.

Newman, J.W., Vedder, J., Janman, W.M. and Chang, R.R. 1994. A method of the determination of environmental contaminants in living marine mammals using microscale samples of blubber and blood. Chemosphere 28(10): 1795-1805. 

Gage, L.J., Gerber, J.A., Smith, D.M. and Morgan, L.E. 1993. Rehabilitation and treatment success rate of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) stranded along the central and northern California coast, 1984-1990. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 24(1): 41-47. 

Gage, L.J. 1993. Otariid anesthesia. In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Third Edition. Ed. M. Fowler. 

Gerber, J.A., Roletto, J., Morgan, L.E., Smith, D.M. and Gage, L.J. 1993. Findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern California coast, 1984-1990. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29(3): 423-433. 

Morgan, L., Hanni, K., Gage, L., Smith, D. and Allen, S. 1993. Biological parameters as release criteria: the fate of rehabilitated harbor seal orphans (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Wildlife Rehabilitation 11: 103-118.  

Gage, L.J., Amaya-Sherman, L., Roletto, J. and Bently, S. 1990. Clinical signs of San Miguel sea lion virus in debilitated California sea lions. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21(1): 79-83. 

Webber, M.A. and Roletto, J. 1987.  Two recent occurrences of the Guadalupe fur seal, Arctocephalus townsendi, in central California.  Bulletin Southern California Academy of Science 86(3):159-163. 

Webber, M.A. and Allen, S.G. 1987. Resightings of two rehabilitated and released harbor seals from California. California Fish and Game 73(1): 49-61. 

Dierauf, L.A., Dougherty, S.A. and Lowenstine, L.J. 1986. Survival versus nonsurvival determinants for neonatal harbor seals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1024-1027. 

Dierauf, L.A., Vandenbroek, D.J., Roletto, J., Koski, M., Amaya, L. and Gage, L.J. 1985. An epizootic of leptospirosis in California sea lions. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187(11): 1145-1148. 

Roletto, J. and Van Syoc, R. 1985. The occurrence of Lepas anatifera on Zalophus californianus and Mirounga augustirostris. California Fish and Game 72(2): 124-126. 

Dierauf, L.A., Dougherty, S.A. and Baker, B. 1984. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 15: 55-59. 

Dierauf, L.A. 1984. Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. California Fish and Game 70(3): 189. 

Dierauf, L.A. and Dougherty, S.A. 1983. Early evaluation of neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) health status I: preliminary report. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14: 138-144.

Dierauf, L.A. 1983. A survey of live pinnipeds stranded along the northern California coast. California Veterinarian 6: 22-26. 

Dierauf, L.A., Lowenstine, L.J. and Jerome, C. 1981. Viral hepatitis (adenovirus) in a California sea lion. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 179(11): 1194-1197.   

Smalley, L. and Griffin, D. 1979.  Nursing care of stranded northern elephant seals (Mirounga  angustirostris).  In The Biology of Marine Mammals: insights through strandings. Eds. J.R. Geraci and D.J. St. Aubin.  Final report for U. S. Marine Mammal Commission contract MM7ACO20; 343 p. Available from NTIS, Springfield, Virginia 22161; NTIS PB-293 890. 

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